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Select singles in the Format field. Select Platinum in the Certification field. Recording Industry Association of America. France and Britain both suffered financially because of the war, with significant long-term consequences. The proclamation outlined the division and administration of the newly conquered territory. Included in its provisions was the reservation of lands west of the Appalachian Mountains to its original American Indian population, a demarcation that was at best a temporary impediment to a rising tide of westward-bound British invaders.
One of the biggest problems confronting the British Empire in was controlling land speculators whose activities often led to frontier conflicts in both Europe and the British colonies. Many American Indian peoples—primarily in the Great Lakes region—had a long and close relationship with France and were dismayed to find that they were now under British sovereignty.
The proclamation created a boundary line often called the proclamation line between the British colonies on the Atlantic coast and American Indian lands west of the Appalachian Mountains. Almost immediately, many British colonists and land speculators objected to the proclamation boundary, since there were already many settlements beyond the line and many existing land claims yet to be settled. Prominent American colonists joined with land speculators in Britain to lobby the government to move the line further west.
As a result, the boundary line was adjusted in a series of treaties with American Indians. It plunged Britain into debt, nearly doubling the national debt. The Crown, seeking sources of revenue to pay off the debt, chose to impose new taxes on its colonies. These taxes were met with increasingly stiff resistance, until troops were called in to ensure that representatives of the Crown could safely perform their duties of collecting taxes.
Over the years, dissatisfaction over the high taxes would steadily rise among the colonists until eventually culminating in the American Revolutionary War. Even before the war officially ended, the British Crown began to implement changes in order to administer its vastly expanded North American territory. While the French had long cultivated alliances among certain of the American Indian tribes, the British post-war approach was to subordinate the tribes, and tensions quickly rose between the American Indians and the British. The second group was made up of the tribes of the eastern Illinois Country, which included the Miamis, Weas, Kickapoos, Mascoutens, and Piankashaws.
Both groups had a long-standing peace agreement with the French. These people had migrated to the Ohio valley earlier in the century in order to escape British, French, and Iroquois domination elsewhere and did not have strong relations with the British or French.
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General Amherst, the British commander-in-chief in North America, was in charge of administering policy toward American Indians, which involved both military matters and regulation of the fur trade. He believed American Indians were militarily weak and thereby subordinate to the British government. One of his policies was to prohibit gift exchange between the American Indians and the British.
Once a tradition with the French, gift giving was a symbol of peaceful relations, and the prohibition of such exchanges was interpreted by many American Indians as an insult. Land was also a motivating factor in the coming of the uprising.
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While the French population had been low, there seemed to be no end of incoming settler-invaders from England. Shawnees and Delawares in the Ohio Country, especially, had been displaced by British colonists in the east, motivating their resistance along with food shortages and epidemic disease. Senecas of the Ohio Country Mingos circulated messages calling for the tribes to form a confederacy and drive away the British.
The Mingos, led by Guyasuta and Tahaiadoris, were concerned about being surrounded by British-occupied forts. While the rebellion was decentralized at first, this fear of being surrounded helped the rebellion to grow. The war began at Fort Detroit under the leadership of Ottawa war chief Pontiac and quickly spread throughout the region. Eight British forts were taken. About British soldiers were killed in action and perhaps 50 were captured and killed; about 2, settler-invaders were killed or captured as well. The war compelled approximately 4, Pennsylvanian and Virginian settler-invaders to flee their homes.
American Indian losses went mostly unrecorded, though it has been estimated that at least warriors were killed in battle. This boundary was never intended to be permanent, but was rather created as a way to continued British expansion westward in a more organized fashion.
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Although the conflict divided tribes and villages, the war also saw the first extensive multi-tribal resistance to European colonization in North America and was the first war between Europeans and American Indians that did not end in complete defeat for the American Indians. Following the French and Indian War, the colonial desire to expand westward was met with resistance from American Indians.
Prior to , the land to the west of the British colonies was of high priority for settlers and politicians. English, French, Spanish, and Dutch patterns of expansion and settlement differed widely. Only a few thousand French migrated to Canada; these habitants settled in villages along the St.
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Lawrence river, building communities that remained stable for long stretches; they did not leapfrog west the way the British did. Although French fur traders ranged widely through the Great Lakes region, they seldom settled down and instead maintained a nomadic lifestyle. The Dutch set up fur trading posts in the Hudson River valley, followed by large grants of land to rich landowning patroons who brought in tenant farmers to create compact, permanent villages.
They did not push westward. These policies were legal according to British law but largely disregarded or exploited the rights of American Indians.
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