Encyclopedia of the Cold War

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A Political, Social, and Military History

Missile sites in New Jersey protected the New York area in the north and the Philadelphia area in the south.

Federal Bureau of Investigation. As nuclear espionage dominated national news, in May authorities arrested a South Philadelphia man, Harry Gold , on espionage charges. A South Philadelphia High School graduate, Gold had studied chemical engineering at Drexel Institute and by the s had begun to provide the Soviets with documents about industrial solvents and manufacturing processes from the Pennsylvania Sugar Company, the Fishtown refinery where he worked. At that time one of the largest sugar refineries in the world, Pennsylvania Sugar had subsidiaries that produced everything from Quaker brand antifreeze to solvents, lacquers, and rum.

Following his arrest, Gold confessed to acting as a courier to pass information for the Soviets about the Manhattan Project , which produced the atomic bomb, to atomic spy Klaus Fuchs Delaware remained one of only seven states to resist adopting such legislation. Locally, meanwhile, in the Philadelphia School District dismissed twenty-six teachers for refusing to answer questions about Communist affiliations on the basis of their rights under the Fifth Amendment. In the suburbs, the Bucks County Bar rejected an applicant based on his association with a Marxist fellow student at the Pennsylvania State University.

An appeal eventually overturned the decision. The Cold War elevated the importance of universities to national security.

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As centers of scientific production, the federal government provided campuses with unprecedented funding. This enabled urban universities in selected cities, including Philadelphia, to undertake massive expansion projects at little or no cost to the universities. Because of their perceived importance and the federal dollars they received, universities came under the scrutiny of authorities early and often.

Barrows Dunham , professor of philosophy and department head at Temple University , attracted interest from the Federal Bureau of Investigation FBI because of his former membership in the Communist Party. Subpoenaed to appear before the U. Cited for standing in contempt of Congress in May , Dunham secured an acquittal a year later.

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Temple officials dismissed Dunham and continued to cooperate with the FBI. Activity at the Navy Yard, pictured here in , rebounded during the Vietnam War era. Activity diminished after Vietnam, but the Naval Base remained vital to national defense throughout the Cold War. Most notably, the Jimmy Carter b. Continued SLEP contracts employed thousands of Delaware Valley residents and brought hundreds of millions of dollars to the region over the next twenty years. Draftees and volunteers from across the northeastern United States reported to Fort Dix in New Jersey for basic training.

Many did not return. The Korean War exacted a human toll of over six hundred dead from Philadelphia and its surrounding counties.

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Forty-three from Delaware died in Korea while nearly eight hundred from New Jersey lost their lives. The war in Vietnam proved even more costly, as Philadelphians, service people from Delaware, and 1, from New Jersey never returned from Vietnam. These costs rendered the Vietnam War increasingly divisive at home.

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Following two years of acrimony on its campus, the University of Pennsylvania terminated its chemical and biological warfare contracts with the Pentagon. The accelerated globalization that accompanied the Cold War brought issues of national security to doorsteps across the nation. For those in the Philadelphia region, as for others across the United States, this rendered a renewed focus on home and family life that increasingly transpired in the suburbs.

At the same time, Philadelphia became more connected to the world. This coincided with the city proposing that Philadelphia become the permanent home for the newly established United Nations , offering a ten-square-mile site on Belmont Plateau but losing the bid to New York.

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While often engulfed in Cold War tensions, Philadelphians also sought ways to alleviate them. In , the orchestra embarked on another first, a trip to the Peoples Republic of China that preceded the existence of an American embassy in Beijing. This type of exchange also extended to sport. LBJ Presidential Library. The region also offered the site for the summit meeting between President Johnson and Soviet Premier Kosygin.

Robinson Both sides agreed on Glassboro , located exactly at the midpoint between New York and Washington. The summit failed to produce any agreements, notably on the limitation of anti-ballistic missile systems. Limited headway made by the two leaders on the terms of a nonproliferation treaty failed to result in the issuing of any communique, and the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in August delayed further serious discussion between American and Soviet officials until It also rewarded the pursuit of freedom globally, awarding the inaugural Liberty Medal in to Lech Walesa b.

The Cold War concluded in with the internal collapse of the Soviet Union. The tensions of the era served to revitalize the military establishment in Greater Philadelphia, injecting the economy with money and jobs. The cost, however, included an anticommunist hysteria that occurred throughout the nation. Thousands of area residents lost their lives in Cold War-era military conflicts. Robert J. Dorwart, Jeffery M. Navy to the Nuclear Age. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, Hornblum, Allen M.

Jenkins, Philip. Lyons, Paul. Philadelphia Communists, Philadelphia: Temple University Press, Weigley, Russell F. Philadelphia: A Year History. New York and London: W. Philadelphia Naval Shipyard Collection, J.

Origins of the Cold War

Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia. State Street, Media, Pa. Your email is never shared. Share This Page:. Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia. Explore Click the images to learn more. Smith Act Hits Philadelphia Historical Society of Pennsylvania Fighting back against what they perceived to be government overreach, scare tactics, and transgressions against the First Amendment, the Pennsylvania Civil Rights Congress PCRC began publishing a newsletter in November titled Let Freedom Ring, which prominently displayed the Liberty Bell and pushed back against a culture that associated dissent with Communism.

The Rosenbergs Library of Congress Ethel and Julius Rosenberg, seen here in a news photograph after their conviction for spying against the United States, were linked to Philadelphia native Harry Gold, who confessed to acting as a courier to pass information about the Manhattan Project to Soviet atomic spy Klaus Fuchs.

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Glassboro Summit Luncheon Lyndon B. Crowd at Glassboro Summit Lyndon B. Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. Authors making effective use of these tensions included Ian Fleming with several of his James Bond spy thrillers, though Fleming's ventures into sf territory tended to use non-Soviet villains; Len Deighton with Billion Dollar Brain , featuring a private pre-emptive war on Russia; and Tom Clancy with such Technothrillers as Red Storm Rising Fictional resolutions of the Cold War that avoided the nuclear devastation of World War Three often imagined the West sleepwalking into a bloodless takeover by the implacable East.

In Kate Wilhelm 's Welcome, Chaos the growing realization that an Immortality treatment exists promises to destabilize the Cold War, since resistance to radiation and fall-out is part of the longevity package. The Cold War Paranoia of the s also led to several metaphorical treatments — or works easily read as such — of the disquieting insight that communists look just like ordinary people and that an honest American countenance might conceal Red allegiance. Substitution of variously human-seeming Aliens gives such troubling scenarios as Jack Finney 's pod people in The Body Snatchers December Collier's Weekly ; ; vt Invasion of the Body Snatchers ; rev , twice filmed as Invasion of the Body Snatchers ; ; or Robert A Heinlein 's mind-controlling slugs — whose attachment to a human puppet equates to indoctrination with communist Memes — in The Puppet Masters September-November Galaxy ; ; text restored ; or characters who do not even realize their own nonhuman and anti-human nature, like the superbomb-carrying Robot protagonist of Philip K Dick 's "Impostor" June Astounding.

Korea; Vietnam was yet to come , with Alien adversaries liberating and re-liberating Earth to the point of utter devastation. A bizarre filmic condensation of early hopes and fears is Red Planet Mars ; for further relevant Cinema discussion, see Monster Movies.

One anodyne for Cold War fears was hope that the expected World War Three would be survivable by recourse to bomb shelters deep or not-so-deep Underground which see.

Encyclopedia of the Cold War Encyclopedia of the Cold War
Encyclopedia of the Cold War Encyclopedia of the Cold War
Encyclopedia of the Cold War Encyclopedia of the Cold War
Encyclopedia of the Cold War Encyclopedia of the Cold War
Encyclopedia of the Cold War Encyclopedia of the Cold War
Encyclopedia of the Cold War Encyclopedia of the Cold War
Encyclopedia of the Cold War Encyclopedia of the Cold War

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