The success of social networks to share experience and personalised insights shows also great potential for integration with business-centric applications. The integration and interoperability with mainstream business software platforms can be enhanced and extended by real-time analytics, business intelligence and agent-based autonomous services.
Information sharing may be rewarded through incentives, thus transforming the Internet of Things from a cost-focused experiment to a revenue-generating infrastructure to enable trading of enriched information and accelerate business innovation. Mash-ups and end-user programming will enable people to contribute to the Internet of Things with data, presentation and functionality. Things-generated physical world content and events from Auto-ID, sensors, actuators or meshed networks will be aggregated and combined with information from virtual worlds, such as business databases and Web 2.
Direct action on the physical world will be supported through machine-interfaces and introduction of agile strategies. This chapter aims to provide a concept for a future architecture of the Internet of Things, including a definition, a review of developments, a list of key requirements and a technical design for possible implementation of the future Internet of Things.
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As open issues, the evaluation of usability by stakeholders in user-centric as well as business-centric scenarios is discussed and the need for quantifying costs and benefits for businesses, consumers, society and the environment is emphasised. Finally, guidelines are derived, for use by researchers as well as practitioners. Uckelmann et al. Uckelmann, M. Harrison, F. Michahelles 1. Whereas the first mention of 'Internet of Things' appears in an Auto-ID Center paper about the Electronic Product Code by David Brock in Brock , increasing numbers of researchers and practitioners have followed this vision, as it is documented by books, conferences and symposia having Internet of Things in their titles.
The Internet of Things is a concept in which the virtual world of information technology integrates seamlessly with the real world of things. The real world becomes more accessible through computers and networked devices in business as well as everyday scenarios. With access to fine-grained information, management can start to move freely from macro to micro levels and will be able to measure, plan and act accordingly.
However, the Internet of Things is more than a business tool for managing business processes more efficiently and more effectively — it will also enable a more convenient way of life. Since the founders of the Auto-ID Center coined the term 'Internet of Things' Santucci , it has widely been used by researchers and practitioners to describe the combination of the real world with the virtual world of information technology Fleisch and Mattern , Bullinger and ten Hompel , Floerkemeier et al. Thanks to the recent advances of miniaturisation and the falling costs for RFID, sensor networks, NFC, wireless communication, technologies and applications, the Internet of Things suddenly became relevant for industry and end-users.
Detection of the physical status of things through sensors, together with collection and processing of detailed data, allows immediate response to changes in the real world. This fully interactive and responsive network yields immense potential for citizens, consumers and business. RFID is increasingly being deployed in applications across supply chains with readers that are distributed across factories, warehouses, and retail stores. Sensor technology is also being adopted in manufacturing and logistics in order to control processes and the quality of goods.
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In traditional RFID applications, such as access control and production automation, tags moved in closed-loop processes, and the RFID data was consumed only by a single client system. Accordingly, there was little need for exchange of data across organisational boundaries. In the same way that monolithic business information systems of the past have evolved into highly networked systems that use the Internet extensively, open-loop RFID applications in networked environments represent a challenge that various stakeholders from industry are facing and partly solving.
These have been developed and continue to be developed for example in working groups within the EPCglobal community in order to gather user requirements and business cases to develop open global technical standards for improved visibility. Similarly, members of the Open Geospatial Consortium OGC are building a framework of open standards for exploiting Web-connected sensors and sensor systems of all types, including flood gauges, air pollution monitors, stress gauges on bridges, mobile heart monitors, webcams and satellite-borne earth imaging devices.
People and things are getting closer. An open and holistic approach of a network of products and people has yet to be developed. These early approaches need to be extended to support open Internet architectures. Michahelles through new applications and wider adoption, the scalability requirements of the Internet of Things have to be met.
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The usability needs to be improved by providing flexible but simple devices and services to connect things and people. The Internet of Things can benefit from the latest developments and functionalities commonly referred to as Web 2. Whereas the successful examples of Web 2. This chapter will focus on providing an overview of the Internet of Things and its future requirements. In section 1. Section 1. Until today it remains difficult to come up with a clear definition of the Internet of Things.
Firstly, it lists components that have been mentioned before in relation to other visions such as pervasive or ubiquitous computing and therefore it is difficult to distinguish from these concepts.
Secondly, it misses wider consideration of current developments and user- interactions in the Internet commonly referred to as Web 2. However, whereas the development of the Internet began more than thirty years before the realisation of the WWW in the early s, the Internet of Things is already being influenced by Web 2. Both technology developments have been happening in parallel rather than consecutively. Thirdly, it does not provide a reason why or how the Internet of Things will be a self-sustainable and successful concept for the future.
Self-sustainability encompasses viability, including a dynamic global network infrastructure with self-configuring capabilities based on standards and interoperable communication protocols as well as openness for future extensions, ideas, and technologies.
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Economic success may never have been a part of a definition for the Internet or other technical network infrastructures. Nevertheless, we consider it a valid consideration within a holistic definition approach as economic success and adoption is just as important as technical sustainability in a forward-looking statement.
For the purposes of differentiation it may be best to consider what the Internet of Things is not — or at least not exclusively. Consequently, this implies that most publications claiming to address the Internet of Things are not really covering the real essence of the Internet of Things. We suggest two more negations.
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Michahelles although we believe that the Internet of People will link to the Internet of Things and it is not the Intranet or Extranet of Things. Therefore, applications that provide only access to a small group of stakeholders e. However, all fields of research that have been mentioned above overlap partially with the Internet of Things Figure 1. One could argue that the Web 2. However, the Web 2. The primary advantage of Web 2. The interaction between things and people will be one core issue in the future Web of Things. End-user product ratings and usage instructions provide a valuable set of information on things.
Unfortunately today this information is very much scattered across the WWW and there is no direct link to a product identifier. Maybe a definition on the Internet of Things does not require a benefit statement — the Internet of Things itself surely does, if it is ever to become a reality. The main reason is the missing benefit for the individual participants. Another approach towards a definition of the Internet of Things can be derived from logistics where it is common to ask for the right product in the right quantity at the right time at the right place in the right condition and at the right price.
In this analogy the right product relates to accurate and appropriate information about a uniquely identifiable physical object as well as its form, fit and function. This includes the usage of Auto-ID and appropriate sensor information or any other kind of linked information to the object that can be accessed through the Internet of Things.
The right quantity can be achieved through high granularity of information combined with filtering and intelligent processing. It may be sufficient to receive information about an object only once a day or only in the case of a status change.
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Consequently, right-time does not equal real-time, a term that is mentioned quite often in relation to the Internet of Things. Unfortunately, real-time capability is linked to high infrastructure cost Figure 1. Similarly, the information availability at right place does not imply any place - but rather, where the information is needed or consumed which may not necessarily be the same place as where it is generated.
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Michahelles unreliable or intermittent network connectivity, then effective data synchronisation protocols and caching techniques may be necessary to ensure availability of information at the right place. Again, the cost of any place availability has to be seen in relation to its profit potential. But as mobile devices are more and more ubiquitous, there will evidently be an opportunity to access information in the Internet of Things at any place at a reasonable price.
The right information condition is met if it can be utilised with a minimum effort. This includes human readable information for human interaction as well as semantically and syntactically enriched machine-readable information, which may in turn require transformation of low-level raw data possibly from multiple sources into meaningful information and may even require some pattern recognition and further analysis to identify correlations and trends in the generated data. The right price is not automatically the lowest price, but instead it is a price between the costs for information provisioning and the achievable market price.
Information provisioning costs include labour costs as well as infrastructure costs. A minimalist approach towards a definition may include nothing more than things, the Internet and a connection in between. Things are any identifiable physical object independent of the technology that is used for identification or providing status information of the objects and its surroundings. Internet in this case refers to everything that goes beyond an extranet, thus requiring access to information for more than a small group of people or businesses.
A closed loop application consequently has to be regarded as an Extranet of Things. The Internet acts as a storage and communication infrastructure that holds a virtual representation of things linking relevant information with the object. Combining the different approaches we can conclude that the future Internet of Things links uniquely identifiable things to their virtual representations in the Internet containing or linking to additional information on their identity, status, location or any other business, social or privately relevant information at a financial or non-financial pay-off that exceeds the efforts of information provisioning and offers information access to non-predefined participants.
The provided accurate and appropriate information may be accessed in the right quantity and condition, at the right time and place at the right price.
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